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Table 1 Summary of published studies using optical neuroimaging concurrently with TMS

From: Optical neuroimaging: advancing transcranial magnetic stimulation treatments of psychiatric disorders

Reference Psychiatric disorder Sample size Optical imaging technique Imaging site (s) Activation task TMS stimulation parameters Stimulation site Results
Eschweiler et al., 2000 [35] Major depressive disorder 12 fNIRS Bilateral prefrontal cortex Mental arithmetic; left and right-handed mirror drawing 10 Hz, 10 s duration, 20 trains total, 90% RMT Left DLPFC Pre-TMS [HbT] changes during task correlated with changes in HAM-D scores
Shinba et al., 2018 [36] Major depressive disorder 15 fNIRS Bilateral frontal cortex None; resting state 10 Hz, 4 s duration, 26 s inter-train interval, 3000 pulses, 120% RMT Left DLPFC Maintenance and magnitude of [HbO] during stimulation session was related to effectiveness of TMS
Huang et al., 2022 [37] Major depressive disorder 40 depressed; 40 healthy fNIRS Bilateral prefrontal cortex Verbal fluency task 2 Hz, 10 s duration, 3 s inter-train interval, 2600 pulses, 90% RMT Right DLPFC Increased [HbO] from baseline to post-treatment in depressed patients positively correlated to reduction of HAM-D scores
Jiang et al., 2021 [38] Major depressive disorder 7 depressed; 6 healthy DOT Contralateral DLPFC None; resting state 10 Hz, 4 s duration, 26 s inter-train interval, 3000 pulses,100% RMT Left DLPFC Depressed subjects observed to have a lower magnitude and volume of [HbO] and [HbT]
Dresler et al., 2009 [39] Panic disorder 1 fNIRS Bilateral prefrontal cortex Emotional Stroop task 10 Hz, 2 s stimulation, 8 s inter-train interval, 2400 pulses, 120% RMT Left DLPFC Increased bilateral [HbO] after TMS treatment
Deppermann et al., 2014 [40] Panic disorder 44 fNIRS Bilateral prefrontal cortex Verbal fluency task 15 pulses per second, 2 s duration, 600 pulses, 80% RMT Left DLPFC Increase in [HbO] in left inferior frontal gyrus during and post-TMS correlated with anxiety scores
Deppermann et al., 2017 [41] Panic disorder 44 fNIRS Bilateral prefrontal cortex Emotional Stroop task 15 pulses per second, 2 s duration, 600 pulses, 80% RMT Left DLPFC Increased [HbO] in bilateral regions during and post-TMS
Deppermann et al., 2016 [42] Phobia 41 with phobia; 42 healthy fNIRS Bilateral prefrontal cortex Emotional Stroop task 15 pulses per second, 2 s duration, 600 pulses, 80% RMT Left DLPFC Increased [HbO] in bilateral regions during and post-TMS
Sutoh et al., 2016 [43] Bulimia nervosa 8 fNIRS Bilateral prefrontal cortex Food photo task 10 Hz, 5 s duration, 55 s inter-train interval, 1000 pulses, 110% RMT Left DLPFC Significant decrease in [HbO] in left DLPFC after single treatment
  1. RMT Resting motor threshold, HbT Hemoglobin concentration, HbO Oxyhemoglobin concentration, HAM-D Hamilton Depression Rating Scale